Without passion there might be no errors, but without passion there would certainly be no history.
C. V. Wedgwood

Tuesday, 26 February 2013

Levi Carroll: The Tenant Had Tenants in the 1820 Log Schoolhouse



Black History Month is nearly over and in its honour, I would like to take another journey into the Queen’s Bush—well, sort of...

I originally started this blog in order to highlight local settlement history within the Region of Waterloo, beginning with the “untold” history associated with one of the Region’s most recognizable built heritage icons: the 1820 log schoolhouse that is presently located in Waterloo Park. My intent was always to move around the Region and focus on different people and their stories over time. It seems that the more I research the more I realize that the local social history keeps wrapping back onto itself.  What I am trying to say is that I often start to research one person or story and then realize I am really just expanding on an earlier story. The one story becomes “our Regional story” in many ways.  In fact, our area is indeed unique because we were first (permanently) settled by white Pennsylvania German Mennonites who came here in groups of families that were well provisioned and well-prepared for the harsh life ahead. They did not settle as individuals—they brought their community with them—their extended families. They were a tight knit, faith-based group that was also highly entrepreneurial—even though they were primarily farmers.  Prior to their arrival, the First Nations people (the Mississaugas) cultivated seasonal gardens and hunted for wild game in the vast forests that surrounded the Region. In the early days of settlement, the two groups co-existed in a mutually beneficial existence—trade and barter was the early means of economic survival and success for these groups, post contact. The Region began as a multicultural community right from the start.
The Mennonites, as pacifists, were also against slavery and often employed the incoming runaway slaves as farm labourers at a time when other settlement areas were not as friendly or welcoming to the blacks. The Mennonites were also known to help the blacks to survive by providing seed, food and other supplies. And as I have posted before, life was particularly hard for the ex-slaves—especially those who settled in the Queen’s Bush/Peel Township/Wellesley area---and many eventually left the area. For those who stayed, evidence suggests that there was a broader black community of individuals who regularly interacted with one another between local towns and rural communities (e.g. Waterloo, Berlin/Kitchener and the Queen’s Bush), regardless of geographical distance. This tells me that the early black settlers in Waterloo Region had strong ties to each other in much the same way as the Mennonites did. Even though they may not have started out as an extended family, it would appear that in many ways they developed an ad hoc extended family of sorts, over time.   

My current story involves our old friend, Levi Carroll, the former black slave who lived in the 1820 log schoolhouse in the mid to late 1800’s and is a return to an earlier post about him.  Levi had strong ties to a number of residents who lived in and around the Queen’s Bush area and so I present one more post to Levi Carroll’s legacy as it pertains to the 1820 log schoolhouse AND the Queen’s Bush Black Settlers....

For one thing, making a living in the 19th century wasn’t easy for whites or blacks although it was particularly difficult for blacks. To exemplify this, Levi ‘s occupations throughout the census records varied from labourer to shingle maker to gardener. As a man who was disabled (he had lost the lower half of his right leg), his options for employment would have been even more limited. As a man of meagre means, no doubt Levi would have found it a challenge to meet his financial obligations. What if Levi was also a landlord?

This might truly be a bit of a stretch but hear me out.

At one point actually, Levi had at least two tenants or “roomers” who lived with him and his family in the former log schoolhouse. We have evidence that Levi was most likely renting the house during the time that he lived there and most of the censuses list him as living only with family members (those with the same last name as his). That is, with the exception of the 1861 Berlin census. The 1861 Canadian census for “the incorporated village of Berlin in the county of Waterloo” records the inhabitants of the house thus:

Levi (Labourer, age 54)—no mention of his marital status. Rather, it is left blank (which is interesting).
Elisabeth Ann Carroll (child, age 8)—listed as attending school and, of course, single
Henry Scott (Blacksmith, age 37)—listed as married
Mary Scott (age 22)—listed as married

**Note: all four are delineated with an “N” for negro. One other notation for Levi is that a female living in his household, aged 24, died sometime during the previous year from a “P. Sore Throat.” (I mentioned this particular fact in an earlier post). Looking back, there are a number of archaic medical terms which seem to be confusing to the modern understanding of disease in the 19th and early 20th century. The explanation of this condition will sound rather nasty as indeed it is/was: “a putrid sore throat.”  Historically this ailment was commonly associated with Scarlatina, a Staphylococcal infection known today as the bacteria which cause Strep throat (or even Strep throat with a rash or “Scarlet Fever”). At its worst, it is a condition that is an ulcerative form of infection that attacks the tonsils down into the throat. In some historic medical records, a putrid sore throat condition was also associated with complications arising from severe Diptheria. In the 19th century, this was a dire and deadly disease. Today, by contrast, this is an easily treatable disease since we have antibiotics that can be prescribed following diagnosis.  It is, however, so easy for us to forget that modern antibiotics really weren’t widely available until 1942 when penicillin was finally was sold as a medicine.  As scientific research advanced in the 19th century along with it came the serious search for antibiotic remedies. It was not until 1924, that Sir Alexander Fleming discovered that the Staphylococcus Aureus bacterium --the cause of Strep Throat— could be killed with a mould known as “Penicillium Notatum.”  Following his discovery, it still took years of development and research before Fleming and two other researchers, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, finally shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work to successfully refine and manufacture the drug, Penicillin.

Having worked for years in the Public History field, I am always squeamish when visitors remark how they “would have loved to live “back then” as times were so much simpler”—well, I am here to tell you that if you have ever had an antibiotic for anything, then you may well not have made it if you lived “back then” since, as I have pointed out, no antibiotics were available and many people succumbed to their infection. But I digress.....

The question remains: Who was this woman, living with Levi in the schoolhouse, who died at the tender age of 24? We do not know for certain—but whoever she was, she was close in age to 22 year old Mary Scott (see above), wife of Henry Scott, a blacksmith. Was the woman who died related in some way to Mary Scott? Was she her sister or close friend? Well, we may never know but some interesting facts emerge as to who Mary Scott was, where she came from and who her family was that eventually overlaps again back to Levi in an interesting turn of events...

At the time of her marriage to Henry Scott, Mary was still listed as being 22 years old. Her marriage record indicates that she and Henry were married on October 29, 1860 by the good Reverend F.W. Bindeman (remember him—the “marrying” preacher who was also a neighbour of Levi’s in Greenbush)? Depending on the date the census was compiled, Mary may not have yet reached her next birthday. Nonetheless, we know by this record that Henry, (age 36 when they married and born in North Carolina) had been a resident of Brantford (“Brandford” sic) prior to his marriage. His parents were listed as Jackson Scott & Mary Gelks—where they were living at this time is not known. What we do know is that his occupation is listed as “blacksmith.” In a time when many blacksmiths were rural tradesmen (many Mennonite farmers had side trades, for example) with little to no formal training, it is hard to say whether Henry was formally trained or not.  I have not yet found a record for him working for anyone in a local business nor have I found a record of him as a business owner so where he worked as a blacksmith is unknown at this point. It is also quite likely that since he and his new bride were living with Levi, his resources were limited. No doubt their living arrangement was mutually beneficial (if temporary) as in it would help both men keep a roof over their families’ heads by sharing the costs of accommodation.  

Mary’s lineage, thankfully, is a bit more clear than Henry’s. Mary’s maiden name was “Lawson” and she is listed as being both a resident of Berlin, ON and as the daughter of Dangerfield Lawson and Elisabeth Harris. Dangerfield (also spelled “Dengerfield Lason” sic) was a resident of the Queen’s Bush.

Dangerfield Lawson had an interesting story. The Peel Township Census of 1851 states that Dangerfield was born in Virginia in 1806 although family tradition claims that he lived in Hagerstown, Maryland (where he escaped from slavery at 16).  There is also a story that he had been captured by his owner following his first escape.  Following a fight between them, Dangerfield apparently strangled his owner before meeting up with some abolitionists who helped him to come to Canada. In 1844, he came to Peel Township (the Queen’s Bush) and settled on the western half of lot 17, concession 7.  The same 1851 census records him as being married but the only female that is listed as living in his household at the time is 18 yr. old Molly Ann Lawson who is noted as being single, not married. In fact, she is the only other person that is listed as a member of his household in 1851.  Linda Brown-Kubisch speculates that he must have died sometime prior to the 1861 census as he was not listed at all. What I find interesting here is that the name "Molly" is also a common nickname for either Mary or Margaret. Was this Molly Ann the same person as Mary Lawson? The age is off unless the Mary Lawson that married Henry Scott was really older than 22 (accordingly she would have been 28 when she married Henry if her age was really 18 during the 1851 census) or younger than 18 in the 1851 census.  Although there are Harrises living in Peel Township at this time, I could not identify one of them specifically as the Elizabeth Harris who was listed as Mary’s mother on her marriage certificate.



Linda Brown-Kubisch lists several children for Dangerfield: Henry Dangerfield Lawson (b. 1838-41), William (b. 1843) and a younger sister named Elizabeth. In 1861, Henry Lawson and his two younger siblings were living with a Rev. Samuel H. Brown, a black man who was noted as being one of the oldest residents in the Peel Township area and “for many years, preacher of the negroes who lived there” (for more information see: http://generations.regionofwaterloo.ca/getperson.php?personID=I243053&tree=generations ).  Reverend Brown was one of the ministers for the African Methodist Church (also known as the “Negro Church”) and was also the owner of the land on which the church was built (East ½ Lot 16, Concession 4, Peel Township). 

 Remember this photo? The church property included a small cemetery. The last services to be held there were about 1918.

FYI: Ministers of the African Methodist Church, Peel Township were:
1838-1839 William Raymond
1843 Fidelia Coburn (see earlier post and photo via "labels link")
1845 Elias E. Kirkland
1846 John S. Brooks
1847 Melville Denslow
1850 Thomas Vipond
1851 Matthew Swann
1851-1853 Samuel Brown


Linda Brown-Kubisch (incidentally, no relation to Rev. Brown) does tell us that Henry and William Lawson worked for Rev. Brown as farm labourers on his 100 acre farm (Lot 16, Concession 4, Peel Township). In 1871, Henry eventually took a wife, Sophia, and continued to work as a farm labourer in the community. Together they raised a large family: Ellen Jane, Sophia, Agnes, Hannah, Henry, James, Jacob, Herbert and Phillip.  The house they rented was situated next door to Henry Lawson’s brother William’s 50 acre farm (Lot 15, Concession 5, Peel Township). William married a woman named Mary Ann Cromwell and they also raised a large family of 8 children: Major D., John Alexander, Emma Victoria, Arbery Dia, Flossie, Rueben, Jemima Ridella and Mabel. 


Well, this story comes nearly full circle—remember Levi Carroll’s step-daughter Emiline Johnston Carroll whose mother, Margaret Johnston Carroll was from the Queen’s Bush area? Well Emiline’s son, James William Aylestock (who spent time in the Berlin Poor House before being released) was raised, according to family tradition, on a farm in the Glen Allan (Peel Township/Queen’s Bush area). When he grew up, he married Jemima Ridella Lawson (March 11, 1909).

So to re-cap as this is a bit confusing: In 1861, Levi shares his home (rents?) in Berlin, ON with Henry and Mary Scott. Mary Scott, formerly of Peel Township, is the aunt of Jemima Ridella Lawson who lives in the Queen’s Bush and who eventually becomes the wife of Levi’s step-grandson, James William Aylestock, from Berlin, ON. Incidentally, just to complicate things further, James Aylestock's family (i.e, James William Aylestock's father) were also from the Glen Allen/Peel Township area of the Queen's Bush.....

I intend to keep researching these inter-community connections and will post what I find. Until then, Happy Black History Month, Waterloo Region!  Levi, this one was for you....

Thursday, 14 February 2013

Oromocto Spring: A Waterloo Region Ghost Story for Valentine’s Day



It may seem strange to introduce a ghost story, albeit a local Waterloo Region legend, on St. Valentine’s Day. I would argue that it is actually quite fitting considering the history of St. Valentine’s Day, itself.  

As far as St. Valentine is concerned, he is recognized as a third century cleric (some sources say bishop) who was martyred by the Roman Emperor Claudius II on February 14, 278 A.D. for performing secret marriages For more information see: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/st-valentine-beheaded  

As for our story, it is an "aboriginal" legend about the origin of Oromocto Spring. The spring still exists, running through an area that has had its name changed many times over the years—originally it was known as Attiwandron Park and later Cressman’s Woods. Today, we know it as Homer Watson Park in Doon (part of Kitchener, ON).  For your viewing pleasure, I am including here a link to a video from a local photographer, Don Drews, whose work has consistently and beautifully captured the allure of the little known natural heritage beauty that surrounds our Region. This video is aptly entitled "Hiking Cressman's Woods."


Homer Watson Park is located in Doon, southeast of the city of Kitchener, along the banks of the Grand River.  Archaeologists and historians, alike, have catalogued countless accounts of early aboriginal activity in the Waterloo Region and today I would like to share one of the legends with you as a Waterloo Regional Valentine, of sorts...

It seems that a young Attiwandron girl, named Nashwaaksis, decided to warn another tribe (the Petuns) about the impending approach of their enemies, the warring Iroquois. In order to warn them, she had to travel on foot from the Doon area to  a site near Elmira— where the Petuns were currently/seasonally camped.  It so happened that Nashwaaksis was in love with a Petun warrior by the name of Oromocto, who was, because he was a member of the Petuns, in great danger from the Iroquois. As Nashwaaksis and Oromocto were from different tribes, they were not really able to meet openly with each other so their love affair was a secret one. Because she was going to warn the Petuns, she was able to meet with her lover--in person--on the pretence that she was on a reconnaissance mission from her tribe (which so happened that she was). The last time that the lovers met, and much to their misfortune, they stumbled upon the encroaching Iroquois near the site of Doon. Oromocto fought valiantly but was quickly slain in battle--Nashwaaksis was inconsolable and overcome by her grief, she died. The Attirwondron tribe members claimed both of the bodies in order to honour them  for their valiant deaths and as they did so, a spring burst forth from the earth--on the same spot where they had died.  To the Attirwondron, this was a great sign. Of the spring, they said that the water in it was “as clear as the character of beautiful Nashwaaksis...and cold as the heart of the Iroquois.”  

Since then, many visitors to the area have said that when you walk in the area of the spring you can still hear Nashwaaksis crying for her lost love, Oromocto. There have been sightings of a young aboriginal woman, wandering and crying as she walks along the banks of the Grand River as if she is searching for someone. Other accounts state that she is heard in the soft breezes of the blowing wind--when one barely catches the sound of a soft, mournful sob. And then there are those, it is said, who have heard her cries of grief in the water, itself, as it babbles over stones and rocks.

P.S. It is interesting to note the "power of the press." The legend first appeared locally, in print, in a 1917 newspaper article that was designed to promote the "new" park and to boost the WWI war effort locally. It should be noted that the names and details of the legend per se are not documented in aboriginal folklore--locally or otherwise. Also, it would not be the first time that a ghost story was "just made up" for one reason or another.....either way, I present it at face value and for an interesting twist for consideration on Valentine's Day. I kinda like this story, regardless....

Thursday, 7 February 2013

A Short Lesson On Land Tenure (that involves John Hoffman and Levi Carroll).



Thank you to Amber for your comment about the maps and their origins. Funny, I was already working on this post when I received your comment! Hope this helps...
Land tenure for the Berlin property where the log schoolhouse was before it moved to Waterloo Park (and its significance to some of the founding fathers and early land development):

1816—Abraham Erb establishes a grist mill in Waterloo (at the edge of present day Waterloo Park).
1820—Abraham Erb’s log school is built (located to the east of the grist mill, but still on Erb land (located c. at the corner of Central and King Streets, Waterloo, today).
1828—Abraham Erb dies.
1829—Jacob C. Snider buys the mill and land from Erb’s estate and adds steam power to it in 1835. (Prior to this it was water-powered). This land that he purchased comprises much of the land that encompassed the growing settlement of Waterloo.
1835—J.C. Snider starts a distillery to process surplus grain and to make use of the added power source. (How is that for an excuse to start a distillery! I suppose it is as good as any...)

The village of Waterloo was really beginning to take shape. As historian Elizabeth Bloomfield tells us “a small village developed on the higher ground to the north of the mill complex...began to attract some of the German artisans who were emigrating from Europe. Abraham Erb’s school, established in 1820 and endowed under the terms of his will, gave the village a special function” (Bloomfield, 2006:84).

I take this to mean, in part, that in addition to the growing commerce within the village of Waterloo, the schoolhouse, as the first school established in Waterloo, further established this early community as an educational centre by providing local education opportunities for the incoming German-speaking immigrants’ children.

1842—The schoolhouse is moved to Abraham Weber's land. Weber, who owned GCT16 (the lot adjacent to the land owned by Jacob Snider, in part lots GCT14 (part of this lot) and GCT15), at some point "....gave Levi Carroll a piece of land for a garden and a cabin”.  Frank Uttley in A History of Kitchener tells us that Carroll was an employee of Weber and that following an accident, Carroll was given this land. I have not yet found definitive information to say whether Weber bought the former 1820 log schoolhouse building as such before it was moved but we do know that Weber owned the land when and where the schoolhouse was moved to in Berlin in 1842. Personal speculation tells me that Carroll probably did not buy the land or the cabin/schoolhouse but further research is needed.
1847—Abraham C. Weber, youngest child of Abraham Weber the pioneer, received the title for his father’s land (481 acres, most of which was within GCT16 in Greenbush/Berlin where the 1820 log schoolhouse was located).

Over time, land owners were also selling off occasional lots and sometimes larger parcels for speculation and development as land values were increasing. Things continued to change for Waterloo and Berlin by the early 1850’s and land speculation was a growing and viable business interest. This “was most intense along the east-west zone of the Grand Trunk Railway line, with Grange’s Survey across the north of Berlin, Hoffman’s Survey in Waterloo, the Shantz and Moyer subdivision, and also various pocket surveys west of Berlin” (Bloomfield, 2006:177).  In the next several years, a lot happens to the land tenure between the lands that joined Waterloo and Berlin as land is surveyed and sold.
See below for a newspaper ad from 1855 advertising lots for sale.

1853—With the advent of the Grand Trunk Railway’s imminent arrival in 1856 (today the CN Railway that runs parallel to Victoria Street, Kitchener), Abraham C. Weber sells all but six acres of his land to Sheriff George John Grange of Guelph who had his land holdings surveyed (“Grange’s Survey of Berlin”) and Weber moves out to the Freeport area (near Chicopee area in Kitchener, today). Apparently, Weber was not happy that the train was slated to run the length of GCT16 and so he decided to sell. I can’t say I blame him.
1853—Jacob C. Snider sells the land he had purchased from Abraham Erb's estate (and the mill) to his son (320 acres in total). His son, Elias Snider—apparently did not like the notion of the distillery.

 It is interesting to note that the still for the distillery was moved after this land transaction to his father’s farm—father Snider clearly did not object to whiskey. (This is a great point of contention for some people as a common belief prevails that Mennonites “don’t drink alcohol,” however, it is clear historically that judging by the number of Mennonite-owned and operated distilleries (and grist mills) that some did and some didn’t. It was quite common at the time for workers—both farm labourers and those working in other occupations—to be given a day’s share of alcohol in conjunction with their wages. There were certainly those who were opposed to the practice of paying workers with alcohol as well as the consumption of it, like Elias Snider). In 1850 Elias becomes the first deputy reeve of the Township of Waterloo and later, he was ordained as a minister in 1874.
c. 1853—Elias sells most of the land that he purchased from his father to John Hoffman (for more information about Hoffman,see previous posting "Paging...John Hoffman." Also, there is an interesting post on the Mary-Allen Blog concerning street names...this post has some information for Elias Snider, John Hoffman and their family members. Please see this post on the Mary-Allen Blog: http://www.maryallenstories.blogspot.ca/2013/01/who-were-mary-and-allen.html). 
1854—Hoffman has the land he acquired in Waterloo (and the village, for that matter) surveyed by M.C. Schofield. This becomes known as “the Hoffman Survey of Waterloo.”  It was this survey that helped me to ascertain the probable location for the schoolhouse when Levi was living in it after it moved to Greenbush/Berlin. 



Compare, then, with the Grange Survey of Berlin, ON., that was compiled after Grange's acquisition of lands in Berlin that included much of Weber's farm on GCT16.